Responsible Neutron Source Returns by FrontierFrontier Technology Corporation (FTC) has been a leading manufacturer of sealed radioactive sources since 1984. We specialize in californium-252, a vital neutron emitting source for a variety of industrial applications. As a responsible manufacturer of radioactive substances, we are committed to following all regulatory policies governing proper disposal.

This is why we offer free disposal services to all our customers: any depleted californium-252 neutron source fabricated in our facility can be returned to us at any time. Customers need only pay for shipping. Learn more about our disposal procedure, policies, and the benefits of responsible neutron source return.

Neutron Source Disposal Procedures

Most of our customers return their depleted Cf-252 containers when they receive a new shipment of the substance. Although we are not required by any regulatory body to take back these containers, as a

manufacturer of radioactive materials, we believe we have a personal responsibility to provide safe disposal. We do not want to offer Cf-252 sources without also ensuring our customers have an easy and secure way to dispose of them. Our disposal procedure complies with all applicable regulations and internal policies.


"*" indicates required fields


Depleted Source Return Policy

We cannot take responsibility for depleted radioactive sources or shipping containers not made by us. These policies ensure the safety of all parties that come into contact with the returned source during shipment. Frontier accepts the return of depleted sources under these conditions:

  • Returned sources must be made by Frontier Technology Corporation. Sources from other manufacturers will be returned to the customer, at their expense.
  • The customer needs to submit a request for the return and have written acceptance prior to shipping the return.
  • The returned source must be suitable for a common carrier to ship.
  • The returned source should be radiologically clean, meaning it was not used in a nuclear reactor or another environment that may have caused significant activation of the capsule.
  • The return should be shipped in a Type A shipping container, preferably one made by Frontier. Containers by other manufacturers will be returned to the customer at their expense. Frontier can provide adequate shipping containers at no cost, but the customer will be responsible for all shipping fees.
  • The customer is responsible for paying the shipping costs, as well as any necessary customs clearance fees and forwarding fees. Frontier will bill any custom broker fees to the customer.

Benefits of Returning Depleted Neutron Sources

Disposal ProcedureCalifornium-252 is a strong neutron emitter. Frontier Technology Corporation maintains the most rigorous standards in the industry for fabricating, sealing, shipping, and disposing of these sources.

Depending on our customers’ preferences, our Cf-252 sources can come in a variety of double-encapsulated chambers. These capsules can be made of Zircaloy-2, 304L stainless steel, platinum, or other alloys. We use advanced TIG welding and sealing processes with tolerances of +/-10%, and each container is custom-built within certain size requirements.

We take the same care in disposing of used sources, so that trace radioactive elements do not contaminate the environment or harm people. Our operations policies follow strict industry regulations set by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, ASTM, ANSI, and ISO 2919. Frontier is an IAEA compliant manufacturer of Type A certified shipping containers, and we ship to over 200 countries.

Responsible Neutron Source Returns by Frontier

Frontier Technology Corporation (FTC) is a global leader in manufacturing californium-252. We’re also a foremost expert on shipping radioactive materials, including all associated logistics. Please contact us to see how we can assist you with disposing of your FTC neutron source. If you’re ready to start the process, review our depleted source return policy and fill out the return authorization form.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Spent Nuclear Fuel?

Spent nuclear fuel is nuclear material that has been irradiated for fission reactions until it can no longer generate sufficient heat to provide nuclear power. With more than 96 operating nuclear reactors in power plants across the U.S., approximately 2,000 metric tons of nuclear waste is generated annually. Although this may seem like a high number, the U.S. has only generated approximately 83,000 metric tons of radioactive waste since the establishment of nuclear power plants in 1958. When you consider the amount of power generated by nuclear power plants in that time, the amount of waste is quite small, particularly when compared with the amount of waste produced by traditional fossil fuel power plants.

What Happens to Spent Nuclear Fuel?

Spent nuclear fuel is shipped to one of 76 nuclear storage facilities located across 34 U.S. states. Shipping casks for nuclear fuel are specifically engineered to withstand a variety of accidents, including water immersion, fire, impact, and punctures. Upon arrival at the storage facility, the used fuel is kept in secure steel and wep filled containers, eliminating the risk of leakage or contamination throughout the shipping and storage process. In fact, thousands of shipments of depleted nuclear fuel have been transported safely across the U.S. for more than 5 decades without any harm to the environment or the public.

Although nuclear waste in the U.S. is typically stored in these secure facilities, several countries, including France, Germany, Japan, and Switzerland, recycle used nuclear fuel into new power sources. Since more than 90% of the potential energy of nuclear fuel still remains when it is discarded after 5 years of use in a reactor, recycling the material is a logical and efficient solution.

In addition to established recycling methods using uranium mixed oxide, a variety of new reactor designs are in the works that could help U.S. facilities make better use of used nuclear fuel.

New research has also shown that californium-252 (Cf-252) may become an integral part of radioactive fuel recycling. Its ability to interact with and start a chain reaction separating different elements coupled with its resistance to damage from radiation may make it a viable option for future nuclear recycling operations.

What is the proper labeling format for EMPTY shipping containers that previously contained radioactive material?


What is the proper label for shipping containers containing Cf-252?


How is Cf-252 shipped?

With proper shielding, Cf-252 can be safely shipped to virtually any location worldwide (please note that Frontier Technology Corporation does not ship to countries on the embargo list). The key to proper shielding is the use of Type-A radioactive neutron shipping containers. Frontier’s Type-A containers are made with a steel outer shell and filled with proprietary water-extended polyester (WEP) shielding material for safety. They comply with 10CFR50 Appendix B, U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations.

All of Frontier’s radioactive shipping containers are tested to ensure their ability to maintain integrity during normal transport conditions. This includes specific testing to withstand jostling, drops and impact as well as exposure to precipitation.

About Frontier Technology Corporation

Frontier Technology Corporation (FTC) is the world leader in californium-252 neutron source manufacturing and design, and is the foremost expert in logistics and shipping of radioactive material. Founded in 1984 by Treva Janzow and the late Edward Janzow, Frontier Technology is located in Xenia, Ohio. Frontier Technology has over 40 years industry experience in providing the highest-quality neutron sources, PINS sources, nuclear start-up rods, TYPE-A shipping containers, WEP shielding, and antimony-beryllium pellets.